Compared with three new energy three-power fuel vehicles, which one will you buy in the next 20 years?
With the increasingly stringent emissions, more and more manufacturers are investing in the research and development of electric vehicles. Whether the electric motor is strong or the traditional internal combustion engine is strong has become a hot topic. The loyal supporters of both sides hold different opinions. Torque brings amazing acceleration, but fuel vehicles have obvious advantages in terms of speed. So, whether electric vehicles are efficient or motors are efficient, which one is more polluting to the environment, today we choose car detectives to bring three major fuel vehicles Compared with the new energy three powers, which one will you buy in the next 20 years?
Electric motor vs. engine
In fact, internal combustion engines and electric motors have a long history. 100 years ago, Europe also had Many electric car manufacturers, even Porsche founder Frederick Porsche, have also developed electric cars, but due to the backward battery technology, these cars were eliminated one by one. The internal combustion engine is generally composed of cylinders, pistons, connecting rods, spark plugs, and crankshafts. , Camshafts, intake and exhaust systems, etc., which generate heat energy by burning gasoline or diesel in the cylinder. Under the action of piston connecting rods and other components, it is converted into kinetic energy through 4 strokes, and passes through the crankshaft and gearbox. Passed to the wheels to propel the car, the internal combustion engine is like the heart of an animal, and it also requires breathing. Oxygen and cooling systems are the conditions for the operation of the internal combustion engine.
The motor is divided into asynchronous AC and permanent magnet There are two types of synchronization. Permanent magnet synchronous motors are generally composed of stator poles, rotors, brushes and housings. The stator poles use permanent magnets. If you have played four-wheel drive vehicles when you were young, you must have an understanding of the structure of the motor. The basic principles are exactly the same. . The AC asynchronous motor is composed of a stator, a rotor, a bearing, a casing, and an end cover. The role of these parts is to convert electrical energy into kinetic energy by generating a magnetic field.
The efficiency of the electric motor to convert electricity into kinetic energy is three times that of the internal combustion engine to convert gasoline. At present, how many internal combustion engines have a thermal efficiency of 30 %-40%. Few internal combustion engines can exceed 40%. The remaining capacity is dissipated through heat and friction, and the efficiency of the motor is between 80%-97%, like the asynchronous AC motor on the front of the Tesla Model 3. Low, permanent magnet synchronous motor has the highest efficiency. But does high efficiency mean that electric vehicles are really more suitable for driving? This will continue to analyze the battery and fuel.
Battery vs. fuel tank
With the advancement of battery safety technology, the current battery case design has actually Keeping up with the safety of the explosion-proof fuel tank, there are no fires or explosions in high-end electric cars like Formula FE, but the energy gap between fuel and battery is still very large. When you stop at the gas station to refuel the car, A huge amount of energy will enter the fuel tank within 90 seconds, and chemical energy will enter your fuel tank at a rate of 17 million joules per second, which is equivalent to 17 megawatts per second. The energy density of gasoline is most suitable for driving vehicles.
So how much is the difference between the energy density of batteries and gasoline? In the early 1970s, when electronic products first became portable products , The battery used is a carbon-zinc battery. This battery has a very low capacity density, only one-240th of gasoline. Nowadays, the most common lithium-ion battery in electronic products and automobiles has made a big breakthrough. The energy storage density is The original six times, but compared to gasoline, the energy density of lithium-ion batteries is still 40 times lower than gasoline.
In layman's terms, if the battery and the fuel tank have the same capacity, then the battery size must be 40 times the fuel tank! Although the conversion efficiency of gasoline heat energy into kinetic energy is not as efficient as electricity, but with high energy density, it can have a long cruising range just by refueling in a short time, and the battery takes a long time even in the fast charging mode, and Due to the low energy density, electric vehicles have a short cruising range. In addition, under ideal conditions, the capacity of the battery will be reduced by 1% for every 30,000 kilometers. Although the electricity bill is lower than the gas bill in a short period of time, as a consumable, the cost of replacing the battery later is higher.
Electronic control vs. gearbox
Compared to the complex transmission system of fuel vehicles, the transmission system of electric vehicles It is very simple. It is composed of ECU electronic control and a single-speed gearbox. The number of parts is about 20, while the number of parts for fuel vehicles is as high as 2000. A more complex system brings more efficient transmission efficiency, although the motor torque is very high. Large, but the lack of a multi-speed gearbox limits the maximum speed. Generally speaking, the maximum speed of electric vehicles is below 200km/h, and the maximum speed of fuel vehicles at the same price can easily exceed 250km/h. Therefore, compare with consumers who like to drive. In other words, electric vehicles are not suitable for entering the track or intense manipulation.
Car detective's point of view: It can be seen from the comparison that although the motor efficiency is high, the battery technology has not yet broken through, and the capacity density is very low. Therefore, the charging time is long and the cruising range is short. These are all electric vehicles. However, the carbon dioxide emitted by the battery motor during the manufacturing process is 160% of that of the internal combustion engine. At the same time, the pollution generated by the power generation process and the future recycling of the battery need to be optimized. Before the battery technology truly achieves a breakthrough, the three major components of fuel vehicles It is more reliable than the three electric vehicles.
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